Cloning is synonymous with duplication, replication, reproduction, copying, synthesis, creation.
To clone is to use one or more sources of genetic material to create a complete or partial replica that is either identical or has variation. Cloning has the following parameters:
a. Complete or Partial.
b. One or More sources.
c. Identical or Variable.
Types Of Cloning1. Complete, One Source, Identical -
Although called asexual reproduction, as if no sex is involved, this is still sexual reproduction initiated within the neuter or female and dependent upon the neuter or female sex. Sex is always involved in cloning. Some of the corresponding processes are called mitosis, meiosis, binary fission, parthenogenesis, hermaphrodite self-fertilization, budding, suckering, rhizomes, cuttings, fragment regeneration, immaculate conception, virgin birth...
Stem cells are what makes all these processes possible.
Stem cells contain the totality of genetic material in undifferentiated form. All other cells contain the totality of genetic material in differentiated form. We know this because today's version of cloning makes use of any cell in the organism. We know the difference between cells is which genes are being expressed (turned on or off). rNA and dRNA are types of stem cells. When these two forms of genetic material make copies of themselves, they are cloning. Thus, cloning is taking place all the time, nonstop in organisms that are not 100% dormant. 2. Complete, One Source, Variable -
One plant containing separate female and male flowers often produces variation when not self-pollinated. 3. Complete, Two or More Sources, Identical -
Although called sexual reproduction, this is bisexual reproduction.
This takes place in many species such as female worker bees and less frequently in humans. 4. Complete, Two or More Sources, Variable -
This is the most common form of bisexual reproduction among animals such as humans.
This is the category where today's version of cloning falls. Even though the nuclear dRNA is removed from a host cell, we know there is still genetic material in the mitochondria, the ribosomes and in many other places within the host cell. This is why today's version of cloning cannot be considered identical or from one source. 5. Partial, One Source, Identical -
One example is when individual cells in a multi-celled organism divide due to growth and development. In other words, cloning is also transformation/metamorphosis. 6. Partial, One Source, Variable -
One example is when cells specialize. This is transformation/metamorphosis. The element Hydrogen duplicates to form two Hydrogen atoms. These two atoms can then remain separate or combine to form Helium. See G.A.G.U.T., Grand Unified Theorem by Dr. Gabriel Oyibo. The composing of one atom (element) into another atom is confirmed by the decay of one atom into another atom.
Yes, elements are organisms and atoms are cells. Just as one cell can become another cell, one atom can become another atom.
See also. ”Star Sparks Fuel Production Of Elements” and ”How To Make An Element.” 7. Partial, Two or More Sources, Identical -
Something created during an intermediate step in a process. 8. Partial, Two or More Sources, Variable -
Something created during an intermediate step in a process.